One of the fundamental differences between Islam and Christianity is problem about adultery (Zina) and polygamy.
In contrast the Christian pushing adultery, Islam forbid his people approach Zina, however, Islam encourage marriage, and allowed polygamy but not encouraging to polygamy. In Islam, adultery is a heinous deeds and a bad way. Zina will take to humiliation causes damages and bring Allaah in the world, in the grave, in the hereafter. Allah Ta’ala has said : ”
وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا
(Koran surah Al-Isra’:32) Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).
Allah ta’ala has ordered for do not near the streets to adultery any shape. For example, a watch shows that indulgence in private parts, reading pornographic magazines, khalwat (only two), dating, indulgence, view, call, sms, chatting, facebook, and diverse other means, which ultimately will plunge man to adultery. Na’udzubillaahi min dzalik!
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal rahimahullaah has said: “I do not know sin the greater after kill human beings but rather commit adultery.”
THE DEFINITION OF ZINA (ADULTERY)
Zina (Arabic: الزنا, Hebrew ; ניאוף – -zanah) is the act of copulating between men and women who are not bound by the marriage relationship (marriage). Generally speaking adultery instead only at the time, people have done intercourse but all sexual activities which can damage dignity of human including considered adultery.
ZINA ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE
In Christianity, marriage is Just perhaps married with one wife. At all should not be divorced, should to marry a prostitute, have children of prostitutes and go to prostitutes.
As verses of the Bible :Verse of the Bible which states should not be divorced :
Matthew 19: 4 – 9 “And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery.
Meanwhile, verse of the Bible which requires to marry a prostitute, have children of prostitutes, and go to a prostitute:
Hosea 1: 2 “The beginning of the word of the Lord by Hosea. And the Lord said to Hosea, Go, take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms: for the land hath committed great whoredom, departing from the Lord.
Hosea 3: 1 “Then said the Lord unto me, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress, according to the love of the Lord toward the children of Israel, who look to other gods, and love flagons of wine.
Hosea 4: 14 “I will not punish your daughters when they commit whoredom, nor your spouses when they commit adultery: for themselves are separated with whores, and they sacrifice with harlots: therefore the people That doth not understand shall fall.
In fact, the verses of porn too there is in bible :
1. Ezekiel 23: 1-21, the sordid revelations about sex.
Told in it sexual deviation which is very dangerous for the development of psychological when read by children who under the age. Thereis the sentences are very raunchy, with call breasts, genitals, touching-touched, picking, lust, and etc.
2. Ezekiel 16: 22-38, pornographic verse about the naked-nude.
3. Deuteronomy 23:1. “A man with crushed or severed genitals may not enter the assembly of the Lord. On this verse, God has called “genitals”.
4. Hosea 3: 1, “The Lord said to me, “Go, show love to your wife again, even though she loves another man and continually commits adultery. Likewise, the Lord loves the Israelites although they turn to other gods and love to offer raisin cakes to idols.” Hosea was told Lord to love women who like a harlot (whore) and adultery. If indeed that Lord ever told His prophet to love prostitutes, all men will conquest became the prophet. And, all women will fight to become courtesan, so loved by the prophet of God.
5. The Song of Songs 4:1-7,
seduction poem in praise beauty saying breasts and milk.
6. Genesis 38:8-9,
story the origins of masturbation by the ancestors of Jesus.
7. The Song of Songs 7:6-13.
Poetry Pleasure of Love praise beauty and love taking sexual words, namely the beauty of breasts and the desire to picking breasts.
ZINA ACCORDING TO ISLAM
In Islam, the perpetrators of adultery divided into two, namely adulterers muhshan, and ghayru muhshan. Muhshan adulterer is adulterers who already has legal spouse (married), while the adulterers ghayru muhshan is the perpetrator who had never been married and do not have legitimate partner.
Under Islamic law, adultery including one of the major sins. In the Islamic religion, sexual activities by the man / woman who had been married the man / woman who is not the validity husband / wife, including adultery. In the Quran, it is said that all of Muslims believe that adultery is a big sin and forbidden by God.About adultery in the Quran, has mentioned, in the following verses: Al Israa ’17:32, Al A’raaf 7:33, 24:26 An Nuur. In Islamic law, adultery, will, subject to, stoning, law.
The statute according to the religion of Islam for the fornicators are as follows:
• If the culprit already married do it voluntary (do not forced, do not rape), they whipped 100 times, then stoned, this is based penalty which has been applied Ali ibn Abi Talib. They are enough stoned without whipped and this is better, as the law which has been applied by the Prophet Muhammad, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar bin Khatthab.
• If, the culprit is do not married, then they scourged (whipped) 100 times. Then exiled for a year.
THE DEFINITION OF POLYGAMY
In social anthropology, polygamy is the practice of marriage to more than one wife. This in contrast with the practice of monogamy, which is just have a wife.
Although it is permitted in some cultures, polygamy was opposed by some people. Especially, feminists oppose polygyny because they think polygyny as a form of oppression to women.
THE HISTORY OF POLYGAMY
Before the Prophet Muhammad PBUH was born, polygamy in fact been done by the prophet before him as information from the Bible.
POLYGAMY OF ABRAHAM
1st wife is Sarah on Genesis 11:29 And Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves. The name of Abram’s wife was Sarai,.
2nd wife is Hagar on Genesis 16:3. “So after Abram had lived in Canaan for ten years, Sarai, Abram’s wife, gave Hagar, her Egyptian servant, to her husband to be his wife.”
3rd wife is Keturah on Genesis 25:1. “Abraham had taken another wife, named Keturah.”
POLYGAMY OF THE ANCESTORS OF THE ISRAELITES, JACOB :
Marry Leah first wife on Genesis 29:22-23
“So Laban invited all the people of that place and prepared a feast. In the evening he brought his daughter Leah to Jacob, and Jacob had marital relations with her.”
Marry Rachel young sister of Leah, on Genesis 29:30 “Jacob had marital relations with Rachel as well. He loved Rachel more than Leah, so he worked for Laban for seven more years.”
Marry a servant of Rachel, Bilhah on Genesis 30:4 “So Rachel gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob had marital relations with her.”
Marry a servant of Leah, Zilpah on Genesis 30:9 “When Leah saw that she had stopped having children, she gave her servant Zilpah to Jacob as a wife.”
POLYGAMY OF THE BUILDER OF THE HOLY TEMPLE, KING SOLOMON : 1 Kings 11:3. “He had 700 royal wives and 300 concubines; his wives had a powerful influence over him.”
POLYGAMY OF KING DAVID (KING OF THE ISRAELITES, FATHER OF SOLOMON)
First marriage with Michal, daughter of Saul on 1 Samuel 18:27 “when David, along with his men, went out and struck down two hundred Philistine men. David brought their foreskins and presented all of them to the king so he could become the king’s son-in-law. Saul then gave him his daughter Michal in marriage. ”
And 7 another wives on 1 Chronicles 3:1-9 :
These were the sons of David who were born to him in Hebron: The firstborn was Amnon, whose mother was Ahinoam from Jezreel; the second was Daniel, whose mother was Abigail from Carmel; the third was Absalom whose mother was Maacah, daughter of King Talmai of Geshur; the fourth was Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith; the fifth was Shephatiah, whose mother was Abital; the sixth was Ithream, whose mother was Eglah. These six were born to David in Hebron, where he ruled for seven years and six months. He ruled thirty-three years in Jerusalem. These were the sons born to him in Jerusalem: Shimea, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon – the mother of these four was Bathsheba the daughter of Ammiel. The other nine were Ibhar, Elishua, Elpelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet. These were all the sons of David, not counting the sons of his concubines. Tamar was their sister.
1. Ahinoam from Jezreel
2. Abigail from Carmel
3. Maacah, daughter of King Talmai of Geshur
7. Bathsheba the daughter of Ammiel
Besides is the servant of the Prophet David
POLYGAMY OF MOSES
With Zipporah on Exodus 2:21 “Moses agreed to stay with the man, and he gave his daughter Zipporah to Moses in marriage.”
With the Cushite woman on Numbers 12:1. Then Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman he had married (for he had married an Ethiopian woman.”
POLYGAMY ACCORDING TO THE BIBLE
Based description above, either the Bible or the Koran in fact allow polygamy. In fact, Martin Luther, the reformatori (Father of the Evangelist) in his book “Der Beichrat” – (The Confessional Advice) – permit Prince Landgrave Philipp von Hesse perform polygamy. It’s better than Prince’s forwarding customs cohabitation and his free sex. (Source Literature : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygamy#Christianity)
Some years earlier, Martin Luther in his letter to Saxon Gregor Brueck said polygamy is in fact does not contradict Scripture. – “Ego sane fateor, me non posse prohibere, si quis plures velit uxores ducere, nec repugnat sacris literis.“ (Source Literature : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygamy#Christianity)
“I could not forbid a person to marry several wives, for it does not contradict Scripture.”
POLYGAMI ACCORDING TO ISLAM
In contrast with the Christian which allows adultery, Islam forbid adultery and allow married more than one person, and may a wife a maximum of four wives. Throughout of his life, Prophet Muhammad pbuh, over a long monogamous rather than polygamy. Monogamy done the Prophet in the community which considers polygamy is common. Household of the Prophet Muhammad, along with solo wife, Khadijah binti Khuwalid RA, lasted for 28 years. Just then two years after the death of Khadijah, the Prophet is polygamy. That too, lived only about eight years old of the rest of his life. From these calculations, in fact unreasonable if any the statement “polygamy is sunnah in Islam”.
Expressions “polygamy is sunnah in Islam” often in use as a justification of polygamy.
However take refuge in the statement, in fact another form of transfer of responsibility above claims for to be fair because in reality as it further confirms the Qur’an to be fair is very hard to do.
وَلَن تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَن تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِن تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا(Koran Surat An-Nisa: 129) Ye are never able to be fair and just as between women, even if it is your ardent desire: But turn not away (from a woman) altogether, so as to leave her (as it were) hanging (in the air). If ye come to a friendly understanding, and practise self- restraint, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
The Proposition “polygamy is sunnah” generally raised because back to the text of the koran (Koran Surah An-Nisa, 4: 2-3) is more easily be broken.
وَآتُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا
وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا
(Koran surah An Nisa : 2-3) To orphans restore their property (When they reach their age), nor substitute (your) worthless things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by mixing it up) with your own. For this is indeed a great sin. If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.
Only one verse which speaks about polygamy in fact did not reveal that in context motivating especially appreciate to polygamy. This verse, put polygamy in context the protection of orphans and widows the victims of war.
Of the two verses, some contemporary Muslim scholars, such as Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, Sheikh Rashid Rida, and Sheikh Muhammad al-Madan – these three are the leading scholars of the Azhar of Egypt – would prefer to tighten. Furthermore Abduh said, polygamy is a deviation from normal marital relations, and just justified in syar’i in a condition of social emergency, such as war on condition is not to cause damage and injustice (Tafsir al-Manar , 4/287).
Surprisingly the verse for among the pro polygamy twisted to be a “full rights” of men to polygamy. Their excuses, the act is to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh. Become laughable when the practice of polygamy in fact be used as, the benchmark of a religious of person: the more active to polygamy is considered is better religious position. Or more patient a wife receiving polygyny is better the quality of his faith. The slogans which is often raised for example, “polygamy is a blessing,” or “polygamy is beautiful,” and the more popular is the “polygamy is sunnah.”
Inside the definition of Islamic law (fiqh), sunna meaning good action to do. Generally, it refers the behavior of the Prophet. However the practice of polygamy which is attributed to the Prophet obviously is very distorted. The reason, if indeed considered sunna, why the Prophet do not do it since first to settle down?
In fact all of his life, the Prophet longer monogamous than polygamous. The Prophet monogamous for 28 years. Meanwhile, polygamy is only about 8 years from the rest of his life. From these calculations, it is actually not unreasonable statement “polygamy is sunnah”.
Sunnah such as defined a Islamic scholar, Imam Shafi’i (d. 204 H), is the application of the Prophet Muhammad to the revelation which is derived. In the case of polygamy, the Prophet was manifest Koran surah An-Nisa Verses 2-3 of protection against the widow dies and orphans. By tracing the book Jami ‘al-Usul (a compilation of six books of famous hadith) by Imam Ibn al-Athir (544-606H), can be found the proof that polygamy of the Prophet is the media to solve social problem then when social institutions is not enough the firm for a solution.
The proof that the marriage of the Prophet for the settlement social problems could be seen the hadith texts which discuss marriages of the Prophet. Most of them are the widow died, except Aisha binti Abu Bakr RA.
Moreover as a recording of the history of Islamic jurisprudence, the phrase “polygamy is sunnah” is also is a very large reduction. Marriage according to Islamic jurisprudence has a variety of legal predicate, depending on the condition of the prospective husband, a wife, or condition of society. Marriage can be obligatory, sunna, permissible (may), or simply allowed. In fact, Imam al-Alusi in his commentary, Ruh al-Ma’ani, states marriage may forbidden in Islam, when the prospective husband knew that him can not fulfill the rights of the wife, moreover to hurt and destroy him. Similarly with polygamy. Therefore, Muhammad Abduh, see the condition of Egypt at the time rather proscribe polygamy.
THE PROPHET AND BANS TO POLYGAMY
In the book of Ibn al-Athir, polygamy which has been done the Prophet is a effort of social transformation (see the Jami ‘al-Usul, chapters XII, 108-179). Mechanism of polygamy which has been applied the Prophet is a strategy to improve the position of women in the feudal tradition of the Arabs in the 7th century AD. At that time, the social value of a woman and the widow is low so a man may wife as much as their like.
Rather, what has been done the Prophet is restrict the practice of polygamy criticized abusive behavior and confirms having doing just in polygamy.
When the Prophet saw some of his friend had been married eight to ten women, they asked to divorce and leaving only four. That is has been done the Prophet to Ghilan bin Salamah ath-Thaqafi RA, Wahb al-Asadi, and Qais bin al-Harith. And, here an explicit statement in barring of the customs of polygamy, which originally no limits at all.
On many occasions, the Prophet in fact more stressed the “principle of justice in polygamy”. In a phrase declared: “Whoever marries two women, whereas he can not to do justice to both of them, on, hereafter later half of his body will loose and cut off” (Jami ‘al-Usul , chapters XII, 168, hadith number: 9049). In fact, on many occasions, the Prophet SAW stressed the importance of be patient and keep the feelings of the wife.
Hadith texts of polygamy, in fact lead to critique, alignment, and return on the principle of justice. From this angle, the statement “polygamy is a sunnah” is very contradictory with what has been delivered by the Prophet. Moreover, with a view statements and the attitude of the Prophet which is very firmly reject polygamy of Ali bin Abi Talib RA. Surprisingly, this hadith text infrequently appear of the pro polygamy. In fact, this text narrated by leading scholars of hadith: Bukhari, Muslim, Turmudzi, and Ibn Majah.
Prophet Muhammad was furious when hearing his daughter, Fatima bint Muhammad will polygamy Ali bin Abi Talib RA. When, hearing thatplan, the Prophet too go straight to the mosque, and climbed into the pulpit, then exclaimed: “Some family of Bani Hashim bin al-Mughirah, request consent to me to marry their daughter with Ali ibn Abi Talib. Behold, I will not allow, once again will not allow. Really, no I do let me, except Ali bin Abi Talib divorce my daughter, I was invited married their daughter . Know, my daughter was part of me; what bothers her feelings was also bothered me, what is hurt him was hurting me too. “(Jami ‘al-Usul, chapters XII, 162, Hadith number: 9026).
Same as the prophet who spoke about Fatima, almost every parent would not willingly if his daughter is co-wife. Like say the prophet, polygamy will hurting women, and also hurting of his parents.
If the statement of the Prophet used as a basis, then could certainly, the sunna precisely is not practiced polygamy, therefore are not desired the Prophet. And Ali bin Abi Talib RA permanent monogamous until the death of Fatima RA.
In the character of Islamic law, in fact choice monogamy or polygamy is considered the partial problem. The law predicate will following the conditions of space and time. Behavior of the Prophet shows how this issue can different and change from one condition to other conditions. Therefore, the choice of monogamy-polygamy is not a principle. That principle is imperative for always refer to in the basic principles of Islamic Sharia which is justice, bringing the benefit and do not bring in harm or damage (mafsadah).
And, when applied then to identify the values of the principal in connection with the practice of polygamy, it should be woman placed as a determinant of the subject justice. This principle, because they say is directly to receive as a result of polygamy. And, to testing these values it should be done empirically, interdisciplinary, and objective with a view of the effects of polygamy in the social reality of society.
And, when size of it applied as seen Muhammad Abduh it turns out that happens more yield evil than good. For this reason, Abduh then ask banning polygamy.
In this context, Abduh citing the hadith text of the Prophet SAW: “It is not justified all forms of damage (dharar) to yourself or others.” (Jâmi’a al-usul, VII, 412, Hadith number: 4926). This expression is more principles than the statement “polygamy is a sunnah”.
THE TERMS OF POLYGAMY IN ISLAM
Some scholars of Islam after reviewing verses about polygamy, they have established that according to its origin, Islam in fact is monogamy. There are verses which contain threats and warnings in order do not abused polygamy is in places which is not fair. This all is aiming in order do not the occurrence injustice. However, polygamy is allowed in Islam with the terms, he do in times of urgency to address the case which can not be resolved with other way. Or in other words that polygamy is allowed by Islam and not prohibited, except if feared that goodness will be defeated by its ugliness.
So, like talaq, it was also the case with polygamy which is allowed, because want seek way out of trouble. Islam allow his people to polygamy based on the texts of the Shari’a, and the condition reality of the community. This meaning polygamy may not be done with his authority arbitrarily in order to achieve the welfare of Islamic society in order to maintain high character and value of the Muslims.Therefore if a Muslim will polygamy let he meeting the terms below :
1. Limiting the number of wives who will to marry. This condition already mentioned by Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala by His Word;
(Koran Surah an-Nisa ayat 3)
Paragraph above, to explain with obviously that Allah has set one that marriage should not be more than four wives. So, Islam restrict if not have a wife, may two, three or four only.
This limitation too aims limits men who like to women in order do not do as he likes. In addition, with restrictions four wives, it is hoped do not some men are not found wife,or there is also a woman who did not find a husband. Maybe, if, Islam allow two wives only then will many women who are not married. Then, too is allowed more than four, perhaps occur many men do not get the wife.
2. Forbidden for the husband gather the women who are have ties of brotherhood to be his wife. For example, married with old sisters and young sisters, mothers and their children, brother’s son with his aunt beside of father and mother.
The purpose of this prohibition is to maintain Silaturrahim between family members.
3. Required also to be fair as had said by Allah Ta’ala ;
(Koran Surah an-Nisa : 3)
With the firm explained and required in order the husband to be fair, if be polygamous. Fair here is not to say only fair to the wife alone but meant to be fair is absolutely. Because, a husband let to be fair, as follows:
a) Applies fair to himself.
b) Fair among the wives in giving living and turn.
c) The children too has right to get protection, maintenance, and affection
4. Do not cause civil commotion among wives as well children. So, the husband should believes that his new marriage will not destroy the lives of wives and children. Because, allowed polygamy in Islam is to maintain interest of all parties. If, this importance can not be kept well then someone who is polygamous at the time is sinful.
5. Able to bear make a living. Intended, with a living, here is living a Zahir, like dress and eat and drink, reasonable shelter, education and health, ability and desire for sex.